Factors that influence the performance, commitment and job satisfaction of employees working from home
Organizational framework conditions
One of the most important aspects is certainly the attitude of an employer. If he does not support working outside the company building and has no trust in his employees, the working relationship is doomed to failure. Ensuring the flow of information, transparency and the ability to lead (virtually) certainly play an important role. When designing flexible working hours, especially in the home office, it is important to have clear rules: time caps, time tracking, realistic workload targets, enough staff, and substitution rules. However, this must be used to the right extent, otherwise employees may get the feeling that they are not trusted and that they are being patronized.
Characteristics of the employees
As the paper by Prof. Dr. Nara Walter nicely illustrates, there are people who can work better or worse remotely because of their personality. Prof. Walter describes the five-factor model of personality according to Costa and McCrae and shows that especially introverts, who need fewer stimuli and stimulation from outside, i.e. less contact with other people, benefit more from remote work than introverts. People who are open to new experiences also cope better with changes coming with working from home.
Conscientious people are perfect candidates for working remotely. They love order and plan their day conscientiously. Working from home can involve certain risks for less conscientious people. Among other things, they tend to forget things, leave things, have an unstructured approach, difficulties with self-motivation, and hectic action under time pressure.
Individuals with a high neuroticism score can benefit from remote work, as their self-consciousness and anxiety in social situations can have less influence on job performance. However, social isolation can also lead to more insecurity. They need more feedback and confirmation about their progress.
Socially acceptable people are team players and enjoy working with others. They also do this remotely which means that this group of people has few problems working from home. Aside from that, a team usually benefits more from having these people physically around and maintaining personal contacts.
Prof. Walter makes it very clear that a person combines every characteristic. However, these are individually pronounced. Who is well suited to work successfully from home depends on the right mix and the environment (Prof. Dr. Nora Walter 2020).