Security in Smart Cities

Today cities are growing bigger and faster than ever before. This results in various negative aspects for the citizens such as increased traffic, pollution, crime and cost of living, just to name a few. Governments and city administrations and authorities are in need to find solutions in order to alleviate these drawbacks. Over the past years one solution arose and has grown continuously was the concept of the smart city.

The concept of smart cities is based on the application of connected systems to manage a city efficiently. There are various aspects in which smart cities emphasize such as transport control, energy and water transport or public health and safety management. The broad distribution of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies favors the development of smart cities. IoT devices are considered the backbone of a smart city as they function as sensors and can be applied in many environments.

In some environments today’s cities are already really smart. For example, many large cities are using a traffic and transport control system, which can control the flow of traffic and make it more efficient, reducing or even avoiding congestion and increase traffic flow. Smart cities are becoming reality. But as the smart city technologies touching more and more aspects of the citizens everyday life, these technologies drawing increased attention from cyber attackers. Since many of the smart city technologies control safety-critical systems like the already mentioned traffic and transport control system, those systems are worthwhile and, because of the security concerns about the underlying IoT technology, often weak targets.

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Preserving Anonymity

Since the amount and value of data are constantly increasing more and more data of each individual is collected and processed. Moreover Facebook’s recent data leak with Cambridge Analytica shows that collected data cannot be absolutely securely treated and stored.

In 2014 and 2015, the Facebook platform allowed an app … that ended up harvesting 87m profiles of users around the world that was then used by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 presidential campaign and in the referendum.

This is one of the reasons why we’ll take a look on our digital identity, how it can be linked to our real identity and how we can restrict that. An understanding of what data is collected while surfing on the web is a first step in preserving anonymity.

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Differential Privacy – Privacy-preserving data analysis

It is widely known that tech companies, like Apple or Google and their partners collect and analyse an increasing amount of information. This includes information about the person itself, their interaction and their communication. It happens because of seemingly good motives such as:

  • Recommendation services: e.g. word suggestions on smartphone keyboard
  • Customizing a product or service for the user
  • Creation and Targeting in personalised advertising
  • Further development of their product or service
  • Simply monetary, selling customer data (the customer sometimes doesn’t know)

In the process of data collection like this clients’ or users’ privacy is often at risk. In this case privacy includes confidentiality and secrecy. Confidentiality means that no other party or person than the recipient of sent message can read the message. In the special case of data collection: no third party or even no one else but the individual, not even the analysing company should be able to read its information to achieve proper confidentiality. Secrecy here means that individual information should be kept secret only to the user.

Databases may not be simply accessible for other users or potential attackers, but for the company collecting the data it probably is. Despite anonymization/pseudonymization, information can often be associated to one product, installation, session and/or user. This way conclusions to some degree definite information about one very individual can be drawn, although actually anonymized or not even available. Thus, individual users are identifiable and traceable and their privacy is violated.

The approach of Differential Privacy aims specifically at solving this issue, protecting privacy and making information non-attributable to individuals. It tries to reach an individual deniability of sent/given data as a right for the user. The following article will give an overview of the approach of differential privacy and its effects on data collection.

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Beyond Corp – Google’s approach to enterprise security

What is Beyond Corp?

Beyond corp is a concept which was developed and is used by Google and is by now adopted by some other companies. The idea behind it was to get away from the intranet and its perimeter defense, where, if you breach the perimeter you can access much of the enterprise data. With Beyond Corp, your enterprise applications are not hidden behind a perimeter defense but are instead deployed to the internet, only accessible via a centralized access proxy. With the deployment of the enterprise applications to the internet, Google establishes a zero trust policy – anyone no matter from which IP tries to access a enterprise application has to have sufficient rights, determined through device and user data.

The trigger for this to happen was the “Operation Aurora” in 2009, an advanced persistent threat (APT) supposedly originating from China, where data from Google and around 35 other companies in the USA was stolen. Since you wont detect an APT through monitoring, because the many single steps in themselves are uncritical and hard to relate if the attackers take their time (talking about several weeks), but are easy to achieve once you entered the intranet successfully,  Google decided to start the Beyond Corp project to find a more secure architecture for their enterprise.

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Social Engineering – Hacking the human OS


Nowadays, our secure systems are already sophisticated and perform well. In addition, research on subjects such as quantum computers ensures continuous improvement. However, even with a completely secure system, we humans pose the most significant threat. Social engineers prey on this to conduct illegal activities. For early detection and prevention, this paper deals with the analysis and discussion of social engineering attacks. The major challenge is to balance trust and mistrust. However, this threshold varies depending on the application. Therefore, it is advisable to extract patterns from past incidents and to recognize them in future scenarios. First, the basic principles and techniques of social engineers are introduced. Three different models are then analyzed. The effects of social networks and the feasibility of the models are outlined in the 58th US election. Finally, possibilities for avoidance, prevention and recovery are discussed.

Table of contents

Web Performance Optimization for Continuous Deployment – Move fast and don’t lose performance

The performance of websites today is a decisive factor in how many users visit them and thus how much money can be earned from them. The impact of this fact is further enhanced by the widespread use of mobile devices and the speed of the mobile Internet.
To counteract the development of heavyweight websites, web performance optimizations should be integrated into the development process as early as possible.
As part of this blog post I want to address this topic in the context of Continuous Deployment using the following sections.

Quantum and Post-Quantum Cryptography

BB84 Protocol key generation

In a world where political activists and dissidents get persecuted by authoritarian governments, strong cryptography is more necessary than ever. But the general public benefits from it as well. Identity theft, banking fraud and cyber bullying can happen to anybody. The most effective protection is to not make sensitive material available to anybody. Unfortunately some people have an “I have nothing to hide” mentality. But would you post your opened mail to your garden fence? Just because most people are not doing illegal activities, some information is better kept private to stay safe from the aforementioned crimes.

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Building a fully scalable architecture with AWS

What I learned in building the StateOfVeganism 🌱

Final setup for the finished project (created with Cloudcraft)

By now, we all know that news and media shape our viewson these discussed topics. Of course, this is different from person to person. Some might be influenced a little more than others, but there always is some opinion communicated.

Considering this, it would be really interesting to see the continuous development of mood communicated towards a specific topic or person in the media.

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